Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. A colorless gas with the formula NH3, ammonia has a pungent smell. Industrial ammonia is sold as either an ammonia liquor or as a pressurized and/or refrigerated anhydrous liquid ammonia transported in Ammonia Scrubber tanks, cars, or cylinders. Ammonia is found in foods, fertilizers, pharmaceutical products, and commercial clean products. It is estimated that nearly 90% of ammonia is used as fertilizers. When applied to soil, it helps provide increased yields of crops specifically corn and wheat. As a cleaner, NH3 is mixed with water to make ammonium hydroxide which makes a general-purpose cleaner for many surfaces. Common surfaces cleaned with ammonia include glass, porcelain, ovens, and stainless steel resulting in a relatively streak-free shine. Ammonia is also used in a technology called a SCR (selective catalytic reduction), which is used to scrub NOx during the burning of fossil fuels.
The most effective way to abate ammonia is with a specialized ammonia scrubber. An ammonia scrubber is a specialized wet scrubber, that is specifically designed to remove harmful ammonia and particulates from industrial exhaust streams. It works by funneling the ammonia laden exhaust stream through the bottom of a packed tower, which sprays a solution from specialized nozzles. This chemical solution is carefully chosen to react with the ammonia in the exhaust stream, and is very often a 93% Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4); this solution often achieves the best DRE, and keeps costs lower. Although Ammonia is not a Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP), it is regulated as a precursor to PM2.5 and PM10 Criteria Air Pollutants. This is because it reacts with acid gas pollutants, to form respective ammonium salts in the atmosphere (such as ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate).
Why does SO2 need to be scrubbed?
Sulfur dioxide is a reactive gas – so when it meets other gases within the earth’s atmosphere, a fine, secondary particle forms. Emissions from automobiles and trucks, industrial processes, wood-burning stoves and forest fires, and surface mining and agriculture activities also contribute to the formation of fine particles. An abundance of these fine particles, or SO2, within the atmosphere could impact our health and the environment.
In 1971, the United States Environmental Protection Agency first established air quality standards relating to SO2 and fine particles, and updates the standards periodically. All Duke Energy plants continuously monitor emissions to ensure air quality regulations are met.
Dry Scrubbing for a Toxic Gas Release
Emergency gas scrubbers are incredibly effective at removing chlorine gas from the air while ensuring the safety of personnel and surrounding communities. Dry scrubbers utilize gas phase filtration to rid the air of toxic gases in the event of a release. Through adsorption and chemisorption (which converts toxic gases into non-harmful substances), they’re able to mitigate the risk. Both dry and wet scrubbers get the job done, but which one is right for you? Let’s explore both.
Wet scrubbers circulate sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to neutralize the chlorine gas during a leak. This caustic compound, however, can be hazardous, which can create an entirely new problem. They neutralize gases and remove particulates from the air, but wet scrubbers encounter problems that require constant maintenance. Pumps, valves and fittings are prone to leakage, which can cost you a pretty penny to maintain and repair. Dry scrubbers are a suitable alternative for those looking for a lower maintenance option.
Dry scrubbers are designed to control dangerous gas releases from 150-6,000 pounds by immediately removing leaking gases (Cl2, SO2, NH3) from the air. The best part? Our dry scrubbers are very low-maintenance, which means more money in your pocket. Not only do our dry scrubbers save you on maintenance costs, they’re extremely efficient, too.
Hydrogen Sulphide removal is one of the most crucial processes towards effective utilization of biogas. To that end, we offer a diverse range of scrubbing systems that can be put to use in a variety of applications.
While our Scrubber systems come packaged in our larger systems such as Biogas Upgrading, we also manufacture our scrubbers independently allowing other manufacturers and end users to gain benefits from the same CRA reliability and quality that makes us an authority.
Wet Scrubber System
Wet Scrubbers are effective air pollution control devices for removing particles and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams. A Wet Scrubber operates by introducing the dirty gas stream with a scrubbing liquid – typically water. Particulate or gases are collected in the scrubbing liquid. Wet Scrubbers are generally the most appropriate air pollution control device for collecting both particulate and gas in a single system.
Types of Wet Scrubbers
Chemical Scrubbers / Gas Scrubbers
Particulate Scrubbers / Venturi Scrubbers
Particulate /Dust Scrubbers
Sulfuric Acid Scrubbers
Typical Wet Scrubber systems consist of:
Pumping (+/- recycle system)
Ductwork and fan system
Spent scrubbing liquid treatment
Modern controls are used to monitor the system and make any necessary adjustments. Wet Scrubbers are common in many industrial applications including pollutant reduction at Petroleum Refineries, Chemical Processes, Acid Manufacturing Plants, and Steel Making.
Packed Bed Wet Scrubbers
Fume Scrubbers remove acids, soluble gasses, chemicals, and odor.
Drizgas is a single source solution for highly durable and efficient Packed Bed Scrubbers. A Packed Bed Scrubber is a wet scrubber that removes acids, soluble gasses, chemicals, fumes, and odors. Contaminated gas flows through a specially designed packing media that is wetted with recirculated liquid. The liquid solvent absorbs the gas pollutant by physical or chemical means. A blowdown from the tank with makeup water addition removes contaminant products before they precipitate.
Common contaminates removed by Packed Bed Fume Scrubbers
- Formic acid
- Chromic acid
- Cl2, F2, Br2
- BCl3, BF3
- Ethylene compounds
- Soluble alcohols, acids, & VOCs
- And many others
Venturi Scrubber for Clean Air
For a less demanding, lower throughput gas cleaning system, the venturi scrubber is a well tested and respected design used by many industrial processes.
It uses a combination of vortex technology and high pressure water misting to remove harmful elements from the exhaust gases.
Our incinerators are designed to ensure Dioxins, furans and similar gaseous components are destroyed using homogeneous high temperature (> 850°C), ensuring there is an excess of oxygen (>6 %) and sufficient residence time at high temperatures to make sure all 3 conditions are met.
If the three conditions above are not met, dioxins will “crack” into smaller but reactive dioxins, which can reform into new dioxin molecules, especially in the presence of heavy metals which can act as catalysts. (Reformation and “de novo” formation).
Flue Gas Scrubber
Drizgas Tech is leading Wet Scrubber manufacturers in India for Boiler flue gas. We design and manufacture wet scrubber to suit the customer’s requirement.
Wet Scrubbers are the pollution control devices usually installed in the path of the flue gases to extract Sulfur compounds or oxides of sulfur such as Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) and Ash particles. Wet Scrubbers are called so because of the scrubbing action of gases in contact with water to scrub off dirty particulates or gases that cause air pollution.
The general composition of a fuel is a mixture of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Sulfur (S), Oxygen (O), Nitrogen (N) and other elements. Combustion of fuel with air generates flue gases that contain Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Ash, Water vapor (H2O).
Dry Scrubber System
Dry gas scrubber is a air pollution control device that is used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams. A dry gas scrubber, unlike the wet scrubber, does not saturate the flue gas stream that is being treated with moisture. Dry scrubbing systems are used to remove corrosive and toxic gases (such as SO2 and HCl) primarily from outside sources.
Acid gases, hydrogen sulphide gas, chlorine gas and other toxic industrial hazards are necessary by products of many common chemical and mechanical processes. By mixing reactant chemicals, organic compounds and raw metals, manufacturers create many of the familiar products for commercial and industrial market.
When manufacturing large volumes of goods, improving process reliability is important. In an effort to ensure these procedures go smoothly, industries have adopted a number of extremely reliable chemical methods over the years. Dry gas scrubbers and other means of acid / toxic gas scrubbing nonetheless remain essential stages in ensuring the environmental cost of work remains low.
While we’ve all heard of maintaining a low carbon footprint, acid gas mitigation has not received as much publicity. This is partially thanks to the wide range of effective scrubber technologies available. Many acidic gases like ammonia and hydrogen chloride are water soluble, so they tend to precipitate out when moisture is added to gas. Dry gas scrubbers add either no or extremely minimal amounts of liquid to the exhaust they clean. This means they do not require wastewater removal processing or steam plumes, common scrubber accessories. The dry gas scrubber simply injects a sorbent material that targets and absorbs acid gases efficiently. Once it has absorbed all the harmful compounds, it is reclaimed by a control device along with any excess sorbent, preventing the introduction of these wastes into the air.
Laboratory Fume Extractor
Laboratory Chemical Fume Extractorare widely used for removing smoke, fumes and fine powder. It is primarily designed for various chemical, pharmaceutical and biological laboratories, various research and development industries and light duty industries. This fume extractor is extremely durable, reliable and easy to operate.
It uses an activated carbon filter and fan to remove the smoke, and noxious fumes, created from soldering and other chemical processes.
The fume extractorincludes a flame-retardant, self-supportive flexible arm for easy and varied placement. Other benefits include small footprint, portability handle, heavy-duty casters for easy maneuverability, quick change pre-filter, and a variable speed controller. The product also known as Portable Fume Extractor.
Foundry Exhaust Scrubber
An exhaust gas washer will be often used if the generated gases cannot be effectively treated with a thermal post combustion system or with a torch. To clean, detox or decontaminate the exhaust gas stream a liquid us used to wash or neutralize unwanted pollutants.
The scrubber can be adapted to the process by designing its liquid distribution and contact area and by selecting the most suitable washing liquid. Liquids may simply be water or special reagents or even suspensions to successfully remove unwanted gases, liquids or particles from the exhaust gas.
Drizgas Tech is one of leading manufacturer of Foundry exhaust wet scrubber in India. We provide highly efficient, top-quality Scrubber systembuilt around your precise requirements.